CHAP j24 HISTORY OF PERSIA vince of Kerman, too, the Ghuzz made great havoc. They harried in the neighbourhood of the capital, and thence proceeded to the fertile districts of Jiruft and Narmashir, which they laid waste* In A.H. 581 (1185) Malik Dinar arrived from Khorasan, joined the Ghuzz, and with their aid seized the province. Some years later he proceeded to Hormuz, where the Governor gave him money and horses. He also extracted money from Keis, then an emporium of great importance, which had been visited by Benjamin of Tudela only a few years previously. Upon the death of Malik Dinar the Ghuzz in the Kerman province were attacked by the Shabancara1 or Ik tribe, who dealt them some heavy blows, and they were finally crushed by Atabeg Sad bin Zangi. The Escape and Death of Sultan Sanjar^ A.H. 552 (1157).—Sanjar remained four years a prisoner with the Ghuzz, treated apparently with respect but closely guarded; tradition says that he sat on a throne by day but was placed in a cage at night. He contrived at last to escape when on a hunting expedition, and it is said that when he saw the ruined state of Merv he ceased to wish for life, and died heart-broken in the seventy-third year of his age. He was buried in a splendid mausoleum erected during his lifetime, which in its present half- ruined state struck me as strangely impressive, recalling as it did an illustrious puissant monarch, the last Great Seljuk, who ended a glorious reign as a homeless and heart-broken fugitive. His Character,—All historians unite in praising the valour, justice, magnanimity, and kindness of Sultan Sanjar, who was so universally beloved that his name was read in the mosques for a full year after his death—an unprecedented compliment. An interesting sidelight is thrown on his character by his enmity to the poet Rashid- u-Din, better known as Watwat, or cc the Swallow/' from his diminutive stature. When Sanjar was besieging Atsiz in the fortress of Hazar Asp,2 or « One Thousand n \Thiluri.be 0<?*Picd * Strict to the east of Shiraz, with Ik, to the north-west of "k « Q ^aL, M,?rc°,™0 8ives Soncara, evidently a corruption of this word, he " Seventh Kingdom " of Persia. 2 Situated between Khiva and the left bank of the Oxus.